April Articles 2013



Ankle Sprains

Ankle sprains, while not as severe as a broken ankle, are still a serious injury that needs immediate attention. They can lead to limited mobility and a significant amount of pain, and are often characterized by swelling and sometimes discoloration of the skin. An ankle sprain occurs when the ligaments are stretched beyond their limits, and even though this can happen in other places, such as the wrist, the ankles are the most common place for a sprain.

Ankle sprains can occur in many different ways, even just by simply walking. They happen when the ankle rolls over itself or twists under the foot, causing the ankle and tendon to snap or pop. Athletes who continually push their bodies to the limits are often at risk, as are people who have previously suffered accidents involving the lower extremities.

In most cases, ankle sprains are not severe enough to warrant medical help, such as going to a hospital. There are many self-care remedies you can use to treat your ankle, including applying ice packs to reduce swelling, remaining off your feet to reduce pressure, and elevating your feet above your head to reduce blood flow and inflammation. Often times an ACE bandage and over the counter pain relievers are enough, but it is still important to remember to stay off the ankle for some time to avoid re-aggravating it.

Even though most of these cases are mild, a severe ankle sprain can occur which will require professional, medical care. A sprain that causes a tear in the ligament or damage to the muscles is severe enough to warrant surgery and keep you off your feet for a prolonged period of time. Post-surgery physical therapy is often required in order to completely rehab the ankle back to health, and this will be administered and monitored by your podiatrist.

Even though ankle sprains may seem harmless and only mildly painful, if you are experiencing non-stop pain over a long period of time, if walking is becoming too painful for you, if the swelling is much more severe than initially anticipated, or if numbness and tingling is present, this may be signs that your sprain is a much more severe broken ankle. It is highly recommended to seek treatment right away for these symptoms.

Often times, preventative care is one of the best ways to avoid ankle sprains. Wearing appropriate fitting shoes that provide both ankle and arch support will help, as well as stretching before any kind of physical activity, including sports, weight training, or even simply jogging.


Toenail Fungus

Toenail fungus is a frustrating and embarrassing problem for many people. It can be persistent and hard to get rid of. Thankfully, there are a number of options for treatment available.

The most effective treatment for toenail fungus is Lamisil. However, any anti-fungal treatment sold to get rid of athlete's foot can also be used. In the ingredients list on products sold to kill fungal growth on the body, look for the ingredient terbinafine. Terbinafine is a chemical product that kills fungal growths. Using a product with terbinafine in it will essentially damage the cell membrane of the fungus organism. However, don't expect immediate results. You will need to apply the medication regularly, and make sure to keep washing the affected area and drying it thoroughly. The fungus needs moisture, air and your skin to live.

Taking other precautions can also help with fungus. Use a powder such as talcum powder in the shoes to absorb sweat and moisture. It is also important to wear sandals or loose-fitting, open-toed shoes which will improve air-flow around the feet, keeping the feet dry. These kinds of shoes will also expose your feet to light, which is not favorable to fungus growth. Wearing socks that wick moisture and dry quickly will also help control fungus.

Although Lamisil and other medications containing terbinafine have been proven effective, they also cause a number of side effects which may be undesirable. If you decide that this kind of medication is not for you, there are a number of natural remedies to try. Applying alcohol, tea tree oil, hydrogen peroxide, or Vicks VapoRub to the nail regularly may solve the problem.

Your podiatrist might also recommend soaking your toenails in a gentle bleach solution. Anecdotal evidence suggests that vinegar and Listerine may also be effective when used as a soaking solution. These are simple treatments, but ones that require patience and consistency. There are also topical products available from your pharmacy which is manufactured especially for toenail fungus.

There are more immediate treatments for toenail fungus available using laser surgery. If you are looking for an immediate and quick removal of the toenail fungus, you will need to find a laser surgeon who can cut the growth out of your toenail. Don't try to cut the toenail fungus out using toenail scissors or other kinds of scissors. Once you get rid of your fungus infection, you will need to throw out your old shoes to avoid reinfection.


Flat Feet

Flat feet is a foot condition in which the arch of the foot either drops or is never developed. While it is common in babies and small children, it can become a problem if the arch never develops. For adults, the development of flat feet can be brought upon by injury, or may even be a result of pregnancy due to the increased elasticity; however, in adults the flat footedness is usually permanent.

The wet footprint test can be an indicator to diagnosing flat feet. In this test, the individual would place a flat foot on a surface in order to show a footprint. If there is no indentation or indication of an arch, that person may have flat feet. In all cases, it is best to consult a podiatrist if flat feet is suspected or noticed.

Once flat feet has been diagnosed, it can be treated by walking barefoot in beach-like terrain, or wearing insoles. There are two types of flat feet; one being rigid, where the feet appear to have no arch even when the person is not standing, and the other being flexible where the person appears to have an arch while not standing, but once standing the arch goes away. In the case of flexible flat feet, unless there is pain caused by the condition, there is no need for treatment. However, if it causes pain or in the case of rigid flat feet, exercises and orthotic insoles may be prescribed in order to help the arches develop.

In some cases when the condition is severe and all other methods have been exhausted surgery may be required but this is normally avoided due to a lengthy recovery time and high cost.



Dealing with Stress Fractures of the Foot and Ankle

Stress fractures occur in the foot and ankle when muscles in those areas are weakened from too much or too little use. When this happens, they stop cushioning the foot and ankles from the impact of hitting the ground. Because there is nothing to protect them, the bones of the foot begin to absorb the full impact of each step someone takes. The added stress causes little cracks to form in the bones that are under the most pressure. These cracks are called stress fractures.

Stress fractures are common for individuals whose daily activities cause high levels of impact on their feet and ankles. Individuals who run, play tennis or basketball, or practice gymnastics tend to experience these fractures more frequently. Anyone is susceptible to this problem, though. Individuals who are normally sedentary and suddenly begin an intensive high impact work out may get stress fractures. This is because their muscles are not strong enough to handle and cushion the intensity of their activity. Osteoporosis may also cause someone to get stress fractures, because the disease weakens an afflicted person's bones and makes it easier for them to break down.

The pain from these fractures will occur in the general area of the fracture. It may be intermittent or constant, and will cause sharp or dull pain along with swelling and tenderness. Engaging in any kind of activity, high impact or otherwise, will aggravate the pain. If the intensity of the activity increases before the stress fracture has properly healed, it can cause a full fracture. This is a much more serious problem, and will probably prevent you from applying any pressure on the foot at all.

Treatment can vary depending on the individual and the degree of injury. The primary way to treat a stress fracture is to rest the hurt foot. Some fractures will heal quickly with only a little bit of rest, while others may require a long rest period and the use of crutches. Under certain circumstances, surgery may be required to install support pins around the fracture to assist in healing.

In order to avoid getting stress fractures, make sure to get plenty of calcium and Vitamin-D. They will help to keep your bones strong, and make them less likely to break under pressure. If your new exercise regimen is running or some other kind of high impact activity, set incremental goals on a weekly basis so you can build up muscle strength. For example, if you plan to walk every day, you could ride a bike on some days to take the stress off of your feet. Make sure to wear supportive shoes to better protect you feet.

If you begin to experience any symptoms of stress fractures, you should stop exercising and rest. If the symptoms do not go away, see an orthopedic specialist. Remembering these tips can help you prevent stress fractures to your foot and ankle, and allow you to continue living normally.


Foot Surgery

If noninvasive or less invasive procedures have failed you when it comes to problems with your feet, you may need to start thinking about getting foot surgery. There are many reasons why a person may need surgery on their feet, which include but are not limited to, problems with arthritis that have caused severe bone issues within your feet, deformities of the foot such as bone spurs and bunions, congenital malformations such as club foot and flat feet, and reconstruction to attend to injuries caused by accidents. Anyone of any age, race, or gender can undergo foot surgery if they feel the need to correct these problems and there are no limiting factors keeping people from getting their feet properly treated.

Depending on what needs to be done, there are many different types of surgeries to correct any issues you might have. For example, a bunionectomy is a procedure that will eliminate any growths on your feet, such as bunions, and have them removed via the surgery. If nerve pain and damage is what you are suffering from, then you may need to undergo procedures that will target the tissues that surround the painful nerve and potentially have them removed. If your bones need to be fused together or realigned, then surgical fusion of your feet is another option you might consider.

As mentioned before, many times when these issues are first discovered, other noninvasive or less invasive procedures are carrier out first before any surgery takes place. However, if all else fails, then surgery is the best option for you.

There are some obvious benefits to having surgery done on your feet. The first being that you will now be relieved of any pain in the foot or surrounding area, which means you can get back to doing activities you previously were unable to do. The second is that once you have completed your surgery, the problem will more often than not be gone forever, eliminating any recurring issues or pain.

Foot surgery techniques continue to advance yearly as better and more technologies become available for you. For example, endoscopic surgery is just one of the many advancements that have been made in the field of podiatric surgery. Many procedures are now able to take a less invasive route by using very small incisions and smaller, more refined instruments. On top of this, recovery time for surgeries has been significantly shortened leading to an overall positive advancement for all podiatric surgeries.


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